From Punk Ballerina to Fierce Filmmaker
By Christina Schultz
In our quest to promote female filmmakers and raise their visibility, we feel this Woman in Film is someone you should know.
Meet Syni Pappa, the director of the short sci-fi dark comedy Whack (which has a crisp dystopian Bladerunner aesthetic) and the coming-of-age short crime The National Garden (a beautifully shot dreamlike short), and co-writer of feature length LGBT drama Feline and sci-fi feature Haunted by City Lights.
Pappa was born and raised in Cologne, Germany, the daughter of a second generation Greek mechanic and an airline worker. Her family relocated to Northern Greece, however, and there she finished school in the border town of Serres. Later, she moved to Athens where she studied Social Anthropology at Panteion University and then went on to London to study film (directing and screenwriting) at Raindance Film School. She also trained to be a classical dancer.
In her teens, Pappa was mainly a punk ballerina who dreamed of forming an all-female version of The Clash, but it was first after she watched Dead Man (Jim Jarmusch, 1995) that she wanted to become a filmmaker. Beside Jim Jarmusch it was Vera Chytilova, Robert Altman, Cohen Brothers, Roy Andersson, Thomas Windemberg, Margaret Tait, David Lynch and Andrea Arnold that equally inspired her, taking lessons from their brazenly generous originality.
Following her studies, the notions of female representation, identity and the idea of power defining normal to abnormal influenced her viewpoint on telling and perceiving stories. In the following years, she worked as an assistant director in feature films, commercials, televisions series and shot most of her experimental shorts. In late 2012, Margot Filmhouse recruited her in Athens as their Creative Director, supervising script development in feature and shorts. In 2015, she moved to Berlin because she missed Germany. She’s currently working on her debut feature film Wrong Island, a girl buddy/coming-of-age mystery film. Hopefully we’ll be able to see Wrong Island in cinemas. So stay on the lookout for Syni Pappa in the future!
Read more about Syni and check out her work by clicking on the links below:
Syni Pappa on IMDB
Syni's Film Festival Agency Profile
The National Garden Trailer
You can also follow Syni on Instagram: @synipop
Rediscovering a Female Filmmaker
By Christina Schultz
Recha Jungmann, who was active as an actress starting in the 1950s and then as a filmmaker from the late 1960s to the early 1980s, was telling stories of women when even less women felt comfortable doing so. There were no 5050 by 2020, Times Up, Yes She Cannes or Me Too movements empowering women to challenge the patriarchy and fight for equality. And yet she made three feature length films and several short films (which will be screened at Remake. Frankfurter Frauen Film Tage, more info below) that center around topics like mother- and womanhood, love and loss.
For example, her first documentary film, Renate (1968), is an intimate love story from the perspective of the eponymous 13-year-old girl. Her film Two Right, Two Left, Drop One, "a short flighty poem" about two women arguing over a man, premiered at the 1st Toronto Women's Film Festival in 1972. One of Jungmann's feature length films, Etwas tut weh (Something Hurts, 1979), is a poignant, personal investigation of what hurt (or still hurts) the director: the postwar past, the familial suffering, the destruction at the hands of the Nazis. Other titles include Unsere Mütter, unsere Väter (Our Mothers, Our Fathers) about the scars left behind in the postwar period and Zwischen Mond und Sonne (Between the Moon and the Sun), an ode to Jungmann's son Titus.
Following the above works, Recha's career then shifted from film to television (especially documentaries) after a lack of funding for a further film project. She never became a big (although "big" is still relative) name like some of her German female filmmaking contemporaries - one might think of Margarethe von Trotta, Helma Sanders-Brahms or Helke Sander, generally mentioned in German cinema books. But we hope to change that! You will have multiple chances to see Recha Jungmann's films, hear her speak about her work and perhaps even meet her in and around Frankfurt, Germany.
Here is a list of screenings for Recha Jungmann's films as part of the Remake. Frankfurter Frauen Film Tage / Remake. Frankfurt Women's Film Days (click on the events below for more info):
Saturday, November 3 at 8:30pm
Etwas tut weh and Renate
Kino im Deutschen Filmmuseum
Guest: Recha Jungmann
Sunday, November 4 at 5:00pm
Two Right, Two Left, Drop One and Zwischen Mond und Sonne
Kino im Deutschen Filmmuseum
Guest: Recha Jungmann
Thursday, November 8 at 11:00am
Etwas tut weh
Pupille - Kino in der Uni
Wednesday, November 14 at 8:15pm
Etwas tut weh
*All photos are copyright Recha Jungmann (provided graciously to us by the Kinothek Asta Nielsen) unless otherwise noted.
Please visit the links above for more information about tickets, event locations and other fabulous movies and events! The site is available in English and auf Deutsch.
Who is Bárbara Virgínia?
By Marina Brafa
Do you know the only female director whose film was in competition at the first 1946 Cannes film festival?
Yes? Congrats! Skip the first paragraph! No? Find out here: Her name is Maria de Lourdes Dias Costa, better known by her stage name Bárbara Virgínia. This Woman in Film was born on November 15, 1923 in Lisbon, Portugal. In just two years, 1946-1947, she shot or starred in a total of five movies. In 1952, she moved to Sao Paulo, Brazil, where she resided until her death at the age of 92 on March 7, 2015.
Here, Bárbara Virgínia’s story could end. Fortunately for us, it does not. Let’s add some more flesh to the bones and reveal the story of a female filmmaker trying to make her way in the male-dominated Portuguese cinema business of the 1940s.
During that time, Portugal was governed by an authoritarian fascist regime, the so-called “Estado Novo,” that came into power in 1933 and would continue until 1974. Briefly, the ideology of this regime regarding women was the following: A woman’s function was to stay at home for reproductive purposes, to care for husband and children, to fulfill the daily chores of a household and be silent for that matter. Moreover, despite the political oppression women suffered, Portugal had (and has) the reputation of being a patriarchal society where it is difficult for women to break through the glass ceiling. Still today, the number of Portuguese women who directed a movie between 2012 and 2016 is only 13% (according to a 2017 study for the Les Arcs European Film Festival). So just imagine how it must have been for Virgínia in the 1940s.
But let’s turn back a bit further, to the 1920s and 1930s as Bárbara Virgínia was growing up. She was born into a well-off family, her father being a Navy officer and her mother a housewife. She attended the National Conservatory and was able to establish a network of friends and acquaintances in the political and cultural realm. As an artistic middle-class woman, Virgínia was forced to live between these two poles: artistic liberalism that came with her work and conservative morality based on her familial origins. This tension would impact her whole life and be reflected in her work as well.
Even her first feature film is a perfect example of her maneuvering between two opposite spheres. Três dias sem Deus/Three Days without God (premiere on August 30, 1946 in Lisbon) is a 102-minute film focusing on a young female teacher from the city arriving at a village school who is slowly revealing complicated and traditionalist family structures in this remote and rural area.  The film’s plot and its expressionist aesthetics are partially breaking with religious and moral as well as cinematic conventions of that time whilst still being in alignment with the regime’s ideology on other aspects. Nonetheless, it is impressive that Bárbara Virgínia managed to fund and produce this film because it is not a mere propagandistic one.
Moreover, Três dias sem Deus was the first Portuguese feature film ever made by a woman, who was only 22 years old at the time of production . Even more impressive Bárbara Virgínia was the only and first female director to present a feature film at the first edition of the famous Cannes film festival.
So, why did she quit making films after this success and leave for Brazil? Paula and Luísa Sequeira summed it up neatly:
“The heaviest weight in deciding to emigrate must have certainly been the difficulty of independently financing herself, to which would have been added the growing censorial and financial restrictions […]. The lack of alternatives to this system, the gender barriers in filmmaking, the break with her paternal family, everything combined to overshadow the conditions of her remaining in Portugal. Ironically, she did not find much better conditions in Brazil.”
Additionally, the rejection of one of her projects Anto in 1950 caused Virgínia to question her life and possibilities in Portugal leading to her emigration to Brazil two years later. In Sao Paulo, she worked for the local TV and broadcasting stations, wrote some magazine pieces and books and traveled to Africa before finally settling in Sao Paulo for good. At 40 she got married and decided to abandon the art world and, instead, to open a restaurant called Aqui, Portugal – the name of the 1947 movie she was starring in. Again, we find this mix of independence and artistic longing opposed to submission and conservative attitude that marked Virgínia’s entire life and work.
What we know about Bárbara Virgínia today is based on newspaper articles, a few interviews and her personal documents. Unfortunately, the “family memory notes that, in recent decades, Bárbara Virgínia destroyed a significant portion of the photographs and papers from that time, probably due to a certain bitterness in remembering it.” In terms of her films that means that we are left with a fragmented 22 minutes (of the original 102) of Três dias sem Deus without any sound. Since 2015 – the year of her death - the Prémio Bárbara Virgínia is awarded to outstanding female artists in Portugal and a way to honor Virgínia’s career. If you crave more details about this fascinating women in film history you should check out filmmaker Luísa Sequeira’s 2017 documentary Quem é Bárbara Virgínia?/Who is Bárbara Virgínia? (2017).
 For a more comprehensive plot summary and thorough analysis have a look at Paula and Luísa Sequeira: “Forget Bárbara Virgínia? A forerunner filmmaker between Portugal and Brazil“. Comunicação e Sociedade, vol. 32, 2017, pp. 353 – 374. PDF
 Ib. p. 360f
Ib. p. 370
Ib. p. 355
- as director
Virgínia, B. (1946). Aldeia dos rapazes: Orfanato Sta. Isabel de Albarraque. Lisbon: Invicta Filmes. Independente.
Virgínia, B. (1946). Três dias sem Deus. Lisbon: Invicta Filmes Independente.
- as actress or narrator
Fonseca, R. F. da (1945). Neve em Lisboa. Lisbon: Invicta Filmes Independente.
Porfírio, C. (1945). Sonho de Amor. Lisbon: Cinelândia.
De Miranda, A. (1947): Aqui, Portugal
Check out the exhibition about Bárbara Virgínia during the 2018 edition of the Olhares do Mediterrâneo festival.
Find more information and a trailer of the documentary Quem é Bárbara Virgínia?/Who is Bárbara Virgínia? (2017) directed, written and produced by Luísa Sequeira → here
Bárbara Virgínia’s profile on the Cannes website
She wore the pants in Hollywood
By Christina Schultz
It might sound like the stuff of fiction, but it’s all true. How, you might ask?
All these factors seemed to have been a formula for her success in Hollywood, as well as with the gay and lesbian community. Her strong, independent personality arguably makes her a good fit as a feminist icon as well. We can only recommend you watch some of her films and see what you think.
We also highly suggest you read “Today in Gay History: The Inimitable Barbara Stanwyck” by Andrew Belonsky for Out magazine for more information about the late, great Barbara Stanwyck, one of Hollywood's greatest stars and suspected lesbian.
Selected filmography (click titles for selected clips or trailers):
Stella Dallas (King Vidor, 1937)
Ball of Fire (Howard Hawks, 1941)
Double Indemnity (Billy Wilder, 1944)
Sorry, Wrong Number (Anatole Litvak, 1948)
Walk on the Wild Side (Edward Dmytryk, 1962; a film with heavy lesbian undertones)
Roustabout (John Rich, 1964; with Elvis Presley!)
Special thanks to Felicia Carparelli for providing me with information for this piece and to filmmaker Emma Seligman who reminded me that Barbara Stanwyck was (most likely) a closeted lesbian. My interview with Emma will be published this Friday, July 20! Come back to read what Emma has to say about sex, the Jewish culture, her work as a filmmaker and, of course, Barbara Stanwyck 😊
 For those unfamiliar with the term, a “lavender marriage” refers to a “male-female marriage,” also known as a “mixed-orientation marriage,” a type of marriage of convenience, “in which one or both of the partners is homosexual, pansexual or bisexual.” The main reason several Hollywood celebrities in the golden era of Hollywood entered into lavender marriages was to hide their homosexuality because it was not accepted. One of the earliest uses of the phrase appeared in the British press in 1895, at a time when lavender was associated with homosexuality.
The Many Talents of Danai Gurira (1978-)
By Christina Schultz
Most of you might recognize the self-proclaimed “Zimerican” actor as Michonne from AMC’s hit show The Walking Dead (2010-), currently in its eighth season, or from Marvel’s wildly successful film Black Panther and the brand new Marvel film Avengers: Infinity War (U.S. release April 27, 2018) in her role as Okoye.
But have you heard of the film Mother of George? Nigerian director Andrew Dosunmu’s film co-stars Danai Gurira in a role more modest and subdued than the ones for which she has become famous. Danai’s performance in the film earned her a Black Reel Award for Outstanding Actress in 2014 and the film itself received critical praise. Such work reveals Danai’s versatility as an actor and I highly recommend the film to those who haven’t seen it. She is definitely capable of more than slashing down zombies with her prized katana or kicking ass with the other members of the Dora Milaje. But don’t get me wrong, I thoroughly enjoy and quite honestly relish her in these badass roles. I have had a longtime crush on (Danai’s portrayal of) Michonne, and am now in love with her sassy portrayal of Okoye.
Crushes aside, did you know that Danai is an accomplished playwright? Her first play Eclipsed, which debuted in 2009 and went to Broadway in 2016, was nominated for several Tony Awards and won for Best Costume Design. It was, more importantly, the first Broadway play in history to star an all-black, all-female cast and to have a female writer (Danai) and director (Liesl Tommy). The story is about a group of women being held captive in Liberia who describe the horrors of rape and violence. Distressing but incredibly important issues. She also won critical acclaim off-Broadway with the more comedic play Familiar (see trailer below), the story of a Zimbabwean family preparing for their first-generation American daughter’s wedding.
I believe her African upbringing, which clearly influences her works, was part of the reason she started the Love Our Girls site. Ever heard of that? If you haven’t, you should. Love Our Girls is Danai’s incredibly inspirational site, which I also think is the perfect word to describe Danai herself: inspirational. Here is an excerpt from the site’s story of “genesis” that highlights this and reveals so much about Danai personally...
“I was born on February 14th, 1978. My father named me Danai, in commemoration of my birth on the day of love and romance; Danai, in my parent’s native tongue, Shona, means to be in love or to love one another. I always embraced this day of teddy bears and excessive red roses as my day. But I have finally figured out a more purposeful meaning of Valentine’s day. This year, and every year to come, I am seeking to reclaim Valentine’s Day, to make it about loving our girls.”
She continues her story:
“I want to reclaim Valentine’s Day as a day when we seek to validate our girls and women globally and lessen the gender gap inch by inch. It has to start with love – love being a verb, not a noun. Join me in making women and girls your Valentine, in making the world a better place for just one woman or girl on the globe. Every month, on the 14th, pledge with me to bring awareness to your network of the struggles, experiences or challenges of a girl or woman across the world.
Let’s do this. Let’s love our girls.”
Real talk: I have goosebumps right now. Not only is Danai Gurira a talented and successful actor and playwright, she is an advocate for real, positive change. I cannot even express how much I admire this woman - but I’m trying my best here. Love Our Girls raises awareness for so many issues women all over the world are facing, of which we are often unaware or simply forget about in developed countries because we have it so good. Issues like lack of proper nutrition and healthcare, no access to education, being forced into arranged marriages or being sold as sex slaves subject to rape and abuse. The Love Our Girls pledge helps us keep these injustices fresh in our minds while reminding us to love our girls. The world has enough hate, so let’s love instead. Sounds like a plan to me.
It goes without saying that we at Femfilmfans have taken the pledge. If you feel as strongly about these issues as Danai does, and as we do, take the pledge too.
 Lee Miller, Victoria. "'The Walking Dead': 5 things you didn't know about Danai Gurira." Yahoo Entertainment, August 17, 2017.
I’m No Angel - Meet Mae West (1893-1980), American actor, writer, singer, comedian
By Guest Contributor Felicia Carparelli
Felicia Carparelli is a retired teacher/librarian and avid film fan, particularly of Hollywood's Golden Era, from Chicago. She is also a published author of The Murder in the Library, young adult novels and Jane Austen-inspired stories.
“Come up and see me sometime.” Iconic words from a past master.
Mae West, do you know her? Born in 1893, in the Bowery in New York, Mae was a precocious child and debuted as a singing Baby Mae. The story goes she stamped her little foot and demanded a spotlight one evening at a talent show. Mae won.
She moved on to being a shake and shimmy dancer in less than glamorous theaters. Her five foot tall figure, endowed with a rather large bust and ample hips was a hit in turn of the century Gilded Age America. More was more and Mae had it.
She was an actress and a writer long before her film career began. In 1926 she wrote a play called Sex, about a prostitute which was banned and put her in jail for eight days. The judge overturned the closing and the play went on to great ticket sales if not critical success. Mae usually laughed all the way to the bank. Another play, Drag, was also a success with theater goers not used to such vivid, racy material.
Her film career began in 1931 when she took the Super Chief, “train of the stars,” from New York to Los Angeles. Her first movie role was a small part in Night After Night (Archie Mayo, 1932), a film starring George Raft. “Mae stole everything but the cameras,” the critics said. For Mae, in her satin gown, dripping with jewels, had the best line of the movie:
“Goodness, what diamonds!” The hatcheck girl says to Mae.
“Goodness had nothing to do with it, dearie,” says Mae and she slowly walks up the circular staircase to fame and movie stardom.
In 1933 she shot her best known film, She Done Him Wrong (Lowell Sherman), a period piece set in 1890s Bowery New York, which co-starred a very young and gorgeous Cary Grant. Her role in the film was inspired by her “Diamond Lil” character whom she played for years on the New York stage. This signature role, also written and created by Mae, was a great hit with the public. This one movie alone saved Paramount Pictures from bankruptcy. Audiences in the sticks, the small town folk, were both shocked and titillated by her saucy ways and amazing figure and wardrobe.
“Come up and see me sometime,” she croons to Cary Grant. “Come up and I’ll tell your fortune. Ah, you can be had.” Heady stuff for depression era audiences who also relished her singing of “A Guy What Takes his Time” and “Frankie and Johnny.”
Another film with Cary Grant followed that same year. I’m No Angel (Wesley Ruggles; Mae co-wrote the script) is a romp with Mae as a carnival dancer turned lion tamer. I know, boggles the mind, but Mae pulled it off with panache. Watch it just to see her scintillate in a black and silver spider web gown as she makes wild eyes at a blueblood Cary Grant, who falls madly in love with her despite their opposite backgrounds. Her trio of maids, also a reflection on the times, sing to her while she gets dolled up for a night out.
A personal favorite of this writer is Goin’ to Town (Alexander Hall; Mae was the sole screenwriter) from 1935. Mae is a dance hall girl in the wild west who is left a small fortune from a cattle rustling beau who gets shot. She falls for a very proper Englishman and follows him all the way to “Bonus Aries” (as she said it) to race a horse named Cactus. You must watch her dress up and sing the role of “Delilah” in Saint-Saën’s “Samson and Delilah,” as she tries to impress the swank ladies and gents of the Hamptons in New York. Mae gets the last word and the guy - who happens to be the Earl of Carrington.
After her last hilarious picture with W.C. Fields, My Little Chickadee (Edward F. Cline, 1940), she embarked on a musical career, hitting the stages of major cities, including Las Vegas, singing and surrounded by muscle men to entice and amaze. This lasted for decades, as well as radio and TV appearances.
Mae West never hid her fondness for men and made a career of overt sexuality. Now she might appear a bit dated but at her peak she was dynamite. She was also fun. Her numerous comments about love and life are as pithy and memorable as any of Shakespeare’s. Check out one of her films today - you won’t be disappointed. You will laugh - a lot - in a good way and will want to rush out and buy a satin dress just to feel fabulous.
As Mae said, “When I’m good, I’m good, but when I’m bad I’m better.” Words to live by. Enjoy.
Bibliography and Recommended Reading
Tuska, John. The Complete Film of Mae West. Revised edition. Citadel Press, 1992.
West, Mae. Goodness had nothing to do with it. 1959. Belvedere Publishers, 1989.